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After neurotransmitters are synthesized, they are packaged and stored in vesicles.

These vesicles are pooled together in terminal boutons of the presynaptic neuron.

The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.

The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors embedded on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.

As the rising phase reaches its peak, voltage-gated Na channels are inactivated whereas voltage-gated K channels are activated, resulting in a net outward movement of K ions, which repolarizes the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential.

Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.

The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.

Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..

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